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  COMPUTER GENERATED ART

Computer generated art is a part of digital art. Digital art is art that uses digital technology in any of three ways: as the product, as the process, or as the subject. The product way means that final form is digital in nature, the process way means that in the process of creation the digital technology is used, and the subject way means that digital technology control depicting machine (Taken from Austin Museum of Digital art)

     

The area of digital art is treated in two very different ways: computer generated and computer aided art. Computer aided art means that the computer is only a very powerful tool controlled by the artist, and work is created by human (using Photoshop to create images). Some people find much success creating art through Photoshop and go on to do the best small business web hosting around. Computer generated art means to create artworks using autonomous processes with no direct human control. The role of the human is to create the process (to develop a computer program), to start the process (to run a program) and to make the selection of generated works. Pure computer generated artworks are not influenced of any kind of artist (programmer, user) emotions. The program can be run at any time and space. Under the computer generated art we can found generative art, algorithmic art, random art, software art, artificial art, mathematical art, cellular automaton art, fractal art

Generative art (Philip Galanter) refers to any art practice where the artist creates a process, such as a set of natural language rules, a computer program, a machine, or the mechanism, which is then set to motion with some degree of autonomy contributing to or resulting in a complete work of art. (more about generative art)

Algorithmic art takes in the consideration Peter Andres definition of algorithm. An algorithm is a step-by-step process leading to a solution. It is logical equivalent to many procedures we use to generate many artifacts. The algorithm for production is distinct from its product. In fact, we could argue that the relationship between instructions and product is a natural as a life itself – that computer algorithms are a pale shadow of material processes underlying the organic world. However, lets get it straight, what is often meant by algorithmic art is in fact art which somehow deploys genetic algorithms.

Random art, one proposed hash visualization algorithm, is a technique that converts meaningless strings into abstract structured images. Random art was developed by Andrej Bauer, and is based on idea of genetic art by Michael Witbrock and John Mount. Originally Random Art was conceived for automatic generation of artistic images. The basic idea is to use a binary strings as a seed of a random number generator. The randomness is used to construct a random expression which describes a function generating the image – mapping each image pixel to a color value.

Software art is said to be neither media art nor interactive media art nor net art, but something between but in reality is more general and more specific at the same time. (Antoine Schmitt). The artistic process is largely dependent on the execution of computer code. Software is considered not as a functional tool on which the "real" artwork is based, but software code as the material of artistic creation. The software does not serve a merely instrumental function, but the code is its material, or the art of coding is the artistic craftsmanship of software art. Software art can be the result of an autonomous creative practice, but can also refer critically to the general technological and social meaning of software.

Artificial art (Kurt Baumann) is made by computer. It is a collection of programs. These programs use random numbers and generative art principles to make "art" automatically. What’s surprising is the contrast between the simplicity of the algorithms and the complexity of the resulting patterns.

Mathematical art is usually connected with name of Dutch graphic artist M. C. Escher and his endless staircases, hyperbolic tilings, Mobius ants, intricate tessellations, and other creations. Many people may also be aware of the intertwining of mathematics and art during the Renaissance, with the development of perspective painting and eye-teasing stagecraft. But the realm of mathematical art is far wider and more diverse than most people realize. Art and mathematics can be combined to create designs that are an intriguing blend of complexity and beauty. Besides tessellations, fractals is probably the branch of mathematics that has the greatest aesthetic appeal.

Cellular automaton art apply rules of cellular automata defined as a discrete dynamical system (Lymad Hurd). Space, time, and the states of the system are discrete. Each point in a regular spatial lattice, called a cell, can have any one of a finite number of states. The states of the cells in the lattice are updated according to a local rule. That is, the state of a cell at a given time depends only on its own state one time step previously, and the states of its nearby neighbors at the previous time step. All cells in the lattice are updated synchronously. Thus the state of the entire lattice advances in discrete steps.

Fractal art apply fragmented geometric shapes that can be subdivided in parts, each of which is (at least approximately) a reduced-size copy of the whole. Fractals are generally self-similar and independent of scale. The term "fractal" invented Benoit Mandelbrot which derives from the Latin adjective fractus (meaning irregular or broken) and he gives a mathematical definition as a set of which the Hausdorff Basicovich dimension strictly exceeds the topological dimension.











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